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De-jure and de-facto standards
Standardization is both the best and the worst thing. It may slow down innovation, but it allows interconnection.
Interoperability: Compatibility of hardware and software.
De-facto standards may be:
- The result of the widespread adoption of an open protocol, file format or interface. In this case, innovation gives a competition advantage.
- The consequence of a monopoly. Intellectual property may then be used to exlude competition.
- The European Working group on Libre Software recommanded open source reference implementations for any protocol standard; endorsement of open and public data formats, and the use of open source tools for managing them. Free Software / Open Source: Information Society Opportunities for Europe? http://eu.conecta.it/paper/