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- Capturing output from a file or a command (or program or script) and sending it as input to another file or command (or program or script).
- (pipe) redirects standard output of a program as standard input of another.
- redirects standard output to a file (and overwrites the file if it already exists).
- uses a file as standard input.
- Appends standard output to a file.
< Input_data_file program1 | program2 > Output_data_file
A "filter" is a program which reads data from standard input, processes it in some way, and sends the processed data to standard output.