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Introduction to GNU/Linux
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Capturing output from a file or a command (or program or script) and sending it as input to another file or command (or program or script).
(pipe) redirects standard output of a program as standard input of another.
redirects standard output to a file (and overwrites the file if it already exists).
uses a file as standard input.
Appends standard output to a file.
< Input_data_file  program1 | program2 > Output_data_file

A "filter" is a program which reads data from standard input, processes it in some way, and sends the processed data to standard output.

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